A central theme of this article is that behavioral control is ultimately self - imposed. However, it is recognized that behavioral control, whether originating from the self or an external source, will unfold within a multilevel context. Thus an attempt has been made to acknowledge that alternative control process occur at different conceptual levels simultaneously Through complex reciprocity relationships.
An overriding control consideration in organizations is the congruency between external and self- control modes. If control is ultimately self- imposed even when initiated from external sources, discrepancies between external influence attempts and one’s self - control will pose difficulties.
Implications for research and practice of control in organizations have been broached by the theoretical perspective of this article. In particular, the themes that have emerged include the following: (a) an increased emphasis on the self - control capabilities and practices of organizational members; (b) careful consideration of the appropriate source from which to initiate control attempts in light of advantages and disadvantages of each source and the characteristics of the situation; and modes. Overall, the analysis suggests that greater organizational effectiveness may be possible with a fuller understanding of individual control processes and the proper integration of self- control with more traditional external modes.