Evaluating the Influence of Employee Voice on Employees' Performance and Creativity through the Mediating Role of Job Engagement

Document Type : Research Article


1 Associate Prof., Faculty of Management and Accountancy, Kharazmi University, Tehran, Iran

2 Ph.D. Student, Faculty of Management and Accountancy, Kharazmi University, Tehran, Iran


Employee voice, due to its role in improving the employees' and organizations' performance, has attracted the attention of researchers and managers in recent years. This study aims at developing an employee voice scale customized to Iran's context and also evaluating the influence of employee voice on employees' performance and creativity through the mediating role of job engagement. This study is considered as applied considering its aim and as descriptive- correlative study considering the way data is gathered. Knowledge employees of Kaleh Company were selected as the population of this research. Census sampling was used and 234 questionnaires were distributed among the respondents for gathering data. Explorative factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis and structural modeling tests were used for data analysis. The results of testing the hypotheses indicate that employee voice has significantly positive effect on job engagement. Results also prove that job engagement has positively significant effect on employees' performance both directly and indirectly through the mediating role of creativity.


Main Subjects

خنیفر، حسین؛ امیری، علی‌نقی؛ جندقی، غلامرضا؛ احمدی آزرم، هادی؛ حسینی‌فرد، سیدمجتبی (1389). «درگیرشدن در کار و رابطة آن با عدالت سازمانی در چهارچوب نظریة مبادلة اجتماعی و فرهنگی».فصل‌نامة مدیریت فرهنگ سازمانی، سال هشتم، شمارة 21، صفحات 200 – 177.
Alfes, K.; Truss, K.; Soane, E.; Rees, C.; Gatenby, M. (2010). “Creating an Engaged Workforce“. CIPD Research Report, London: CIPD.
Amabile, T. M.; Conti, R.; Coon, H.; Lazenby, J.; Herron, M. (1996). “Assessing the Work Environment for Creativity”. Academy of Management Journal, 39, 1154–1184.
Amabile, T. M.; Mueller, J. S. (2008). “Studying Creativity, Its Processes, and Its Antecedents: An Exploration of the Componential Theory of Creativity”. Chapter in J. Zhou and C. E. Shalley (Eds), Handbook of Organizational Creativity, 33-64, New York: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Bakker, A. B.; Xanthopoulou, D. (2013). “Creativity and charisma among female leaders: the role of resources and work engagement“. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 24(14), 2760-2779
Bakker, A. B.; Xanthopoulou, D. (2009). “The Crossover of Daily Work Engagement: Test of an Actor-Partner Interdependence Model“. Journal of Applied Psychology, 94(6), 1562–1571.
Bakker, A. B.; Albrecht, S. L.; Leiter, M. P. (2011). “Key Questions Regarding Work Engagement“. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 20, 4–28.
Budd, J.; Gollan, P. Wilkinson, A. (2010). “New Approaches to Employee Voice and Participation“. Human Relations, 63(3), 1–8.
Boxall, P.; Purcell, J. (2008). Strategy and human resource management. 2nd Ed. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
Christian, M. S.; Garza, A. S.; Slaughter, J. E. (2011). “Work Engagement: A Quantitative Review and Test of Its Relation with Task and Contextual Performance“. Personnel Psychology, 64(1), 89–136.
Davenport, T. H. (2005). “Improving Knowledge Worker Performance“. MIT Sloan Management Review, 46(4), 215-235.
Demerouti, E.; Cropanzano, R. (2010). From Thought to Action: Employee Work Engagement and Job Performance. In Work Engagement: A Handbook of Essential Theory and Research, eds. Bakker, A. B. and Leiter, M.P., New York, Psychology Press, pp.147–163.
Farndale, E.; Van Ruiten, J.; Kelliher, C.; Hope-Hailey, V. (2011). “The Influence of Perceived Employee Voice on Organisational Commitment: An Exchange Perspective“. Human Resource Management, 50(1), 113–129.
Gagne, M.; Deci, E. L. (2005). “Self-determination theory and work motivation”. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 26, 331-62.
Goldberg, C. B.; Clark, M. A.; Henley, A. B. (2011). “Speaking up: A Conceptual Model of voice responses following the unfair treatment of others in non-union settings“. Human Resource Management, 50(1), 75 – 94
Gong, Y.; Huang, J. C.; Farh, J. L. (2009). “Employee Learning Orientation, Transformational Leadership, and Employee Creativity: The Mediating Role of Employee Creative Self-Efficacy“. Academy of Management Journal, 52, 765-778
Gould-Williams, J. (2007). “HR Practices, Organizational Climate and Employee Outcomes: Evaluating Social Exchange Relationships in Local Government“. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 18(9), 1627–1647.
Gruman, J. A.; Saks, A. M. (2010). “Performance management and employee engagement“. Human Resource Management Review, 21, 123-136
Kahn, W. A. (1990). “Psychological Conditions of Personal Engagement and Disengagement at Work“. Academy of Management Journal, 33, 692–724.
Kuvaas, B. (2006). “Work performance, affective commitment, and work motivation: the roles of pay administration and pay level“. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 27(3), 365–385.
Kuvaas, B.; Dysvik, A. (2010). “Exploring Alternative Relationships Between Perceived Investment in Employee Development, Perceived Supervisor Support and Employee Outcomes“. Human Resource Management Journal, 20(2), 138–156.
Macey, W.; Schneider, B. (2009). “The Meaning of Employee Engagement“. Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 1(1), 3–30.
May, D. R.; Gilson, R. L.; Harter, L. M. (2004). “The Psychological Conditions of Meaningfulness, Safety and Availability and the Engagement of the Human Spirit at Work“. Journal of Occupational and Organisational Psychology, 77, 11–37.
Purcell, J.; Kinnie, N.; Hutchinson, S.; Rayton, B.; Swart, J. (2003). Understanding the People and Performance Link: Unlocking the Black Box, London,: CIPD.
Purcell, J.; Hutchinson, S. (2007). “Front-line Managers as Agents in the HRM-Performance Causal Chain: Theory, Analysis and Evidence“. Human Resource Management Journal, 17(1), 3–20.
Rees, C.; Alfes, K.; Gatenby, M. (2013). “Employee voice and engagement: connections and consequences“. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 24(14), 2780-2798.
Rich, B. L.; Lepine, J. A.; Crawford, E. R. (2010). “Job Engagement: Antecedents and Effects on Job Performance”., Academy of Management Journal, 53(3), 617–635.
Richman, A. (2006). “Everyone wants an engaged workforce how can you create it?”. Work span, 49, 36−39
Saks, A. M. (2006). “Antecedents and Consequences of Employee Engagement“. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 21(7), 600–619.
Salanova, M.; Schaufeli, W. B. (2008). “A Cross-National Study of Work Engagement as a Mediator Between Job Resources and Proactive Behaviour“. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 19(1), 116–131.
Schaufeli, W. B.; Bakker, A. B. (2004). “Job demands, job resources, and their relationship with burnout and engagement“. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 25, 293–315.
Schaufeli, W. B.; Bakker, A. B.; Salanova, M. (2006). “The Measurement of Work Engagement With a Short Questionnaire: A Cross-National Study“. Education and Psychological Measurement, 66, 701–716.
Shin, S. J.; Kim, T. Y.; Lee, J. Y.; Bian, L. (2012). “Cognitive Team Diversity and Individual Team Member Creativity: A Cross-Level Integration”. Academy of Management Journal, 55, 197-212.
Shuck, B., Jr, T. G. R. and Rocco, T. S. (2011). “Employee engagement: an examination of antecedent and outcome variables“. Human Resource Development International, 14(4), 427–445
Shuck, B.; Wollard, K. (2010). “Employee engagement & HRD: A seminal review of the foundations“. Human Resource Development Review, 9(1), 89–110.
Van Dyne, L.; Ang, S.; Botero, I. C. (2003). “Conceptualizing employee silence and employee voice as multidimensional constructs”. Journal of Management Studies, 40(6), 1359-1392.
Wang, G.; Netemeyer, R. G. (2004). “Salesperson Creative Performance: Conceptualization, Measurement, and Nomological Validity“. Journal of Business Research, 57 (8), 805–12.
Wilkinson, A.; Dundon, T.; Marchington, M.; Ackers, P. (2004). “Changing patterns of employee voice: Case studies from the UK and Republic of Ireland“. Journal of Industrial Relations, 46(3), 298–322.