Designing the Model of the Factors Affecting the Maintenance of Human Capital Based on the Employer Brand Using Interpretive Structural Modeling: The Case Study of Alborz Insurance Company

Document Type : Research Article


1 PhD Student, Department of Management, Aliabad Katoul Branch, Islamic Azad University, Aliabad Katoul, Iran

2 Assistant Professor, Department of Management, Aliabad Katoul Branch, Islamic Azad University, Aliabad Katoul, Iran

3 Assistant Professor, Department of Management, Semnan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Semnan, Iran


Nowadays, the human capital is considered as one of the most important resources of any organization, and the maintenance of the talented employees has turned into one of the biggest challenges for the human resource management in today’s competitive era. The purpose of this study was to design a model for the maintenance of human capital based on the employer brand. This study was an applied research project in terms of purpose and a survey in terms of data collection method. The factors effective on the human capital maintenance were extracted based on a review of the related literature and an inspection of the related resources. Then, the effective variables were screened and confirmed by a group of experts using Delphi method. The expert group was comprised of 10 university professors and organizational clerks and managers who were selected using convenience sampling. After the confirmation of the factors, the interpretive structural modeling was applied to design the model and the MICMAC analysis was implemented to analyze it. It seems that the adoption of this design has brought about – for the first time – the determination of the effectiveness and affectedness of various factors related to the role of employer brand in the maintenance of human capital. The application of this method led to the classification of the 14 factors effective on the maintenance of human capital into five categories. The findings demonstrated that factors such as organizational culture, organizational trust, core values, and flexible work conditions have the highest effect on the other variables, and the whole system changes when they change.


Main Subjects

Afjahi, S. & Alizadeh-Far, Z. (2017). “The Relationship of Perception From Employer Brand with Job Attitudes of Employees”, Management Studies in Development and Evolution, 26(84), pp. 73-96. doi: 10.22054/jmsd.2017.7856. (in Persian)
Ahmadi, H., Zahedi, A., Tangestani, E., & Askari Abyaneh, A. (2019). “Investigating the Impact of Employer Brand Dimensions on Employee Satisfaction”, Third National Conference on Economics, Management and Accounting, Ahwaz. (in Persian)
Ambler, T. & Barrow, S. (1996). “The employer brand”, Journal of Brand Management, 4(3), pp. 185-206.
Azar, A., Khosravani, F., & Jalali, R. (2013). Research in the soft operation of structuring approaches, Industrial Management Institute, Tehran. (in Persian)
Azar, A., Rastegar, A., & Bagheri Garabollagh, H. (2019). “Brand-Specific Transformational Leadership: Analysis of the Role of the Employee’s Brand-Building Behaviour on Brand Evangelism in Insurance Companies”, Journal of Business Management, 11(1), pp. 141-162. (in Persian)
Bamberger, P., Sisselman, M., & Borin, M. (2005). “The impact of increased employee retention on performance in a customer contact centre”, 8(3), 236. 
Biswas, M. K. & Suar, D. (2014). “Antecedents and consequences of employer branding”, Journal of Business Ethics, 136(1), pp. 57-72.
Buil, I., Martinez, E., & Matut, J. (2016). “From internal brand management to organizational citizenship behaviours: Evidence from frontline employees in the hotel industry”, Tourism Management, Vol. 57, pp. 256–271.
Cullion, H. & Collings, D. G. (2011). Global Talent Management, Routledge, New York.
Dabirian, A., Kietzmann, J., & Paschen, J. (2019). “Employer Branding: Understanding Employer Attractiveness of IT Companies”, in IT Professional, 21(1), pp. 82-89, doi: 10.1109/MITP.2018.2876980.
Davoudi, S. M. M. & Fartash, K. (2013). “Turnover Intentions: Iranian Employees”, Journal of Indian Management, 10(1), pp. 89-99.
Deery, M. (2008). “Talent management, work-life balance and retention strategies”, International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 20(7), pp. 792-806. doi: 10.1108/09596110810897619
Edwards, M. (2005). “Organization identification: aconceptual and operational review”, International journal of management review, 17(4), pp. 207-230.
Figurska, I. & Matuska, E. (2013). “Employer Branding as a human resources management strategy”, Human Resources Management & Ergonomics, 7(2), pp. 35-51.
Foster, C., Punjaisri, K., & Cheng, R. (2010). “Exploring the relationship between corporate, internal and employer branding”, Journal of Product and Brand Management, 19(6), pp. 401–409.
Frook, J. E. (2001). Burnish your brand from the inside. Advertising Age, (B to B), 86, 1-2. Retrieved from 251793/
Gilani, H. & Cunningham, l. (2017). “Employer branding and its influence on employee retention: A literature review”, The Marketing Review, 17(2), pp. 239-256.
Hassan, A. (2007). “Human resource development and organizational value”, Journal of European Industrial Training, 31(6), pp. 435–448.
Helton Kimberly, A. & Jackson Robeti, D. (2007). Navigating Pennsylvania's Dynamic Workforce: Succession Planning in a Complex Environment, Public Personnel.
Hendricks, M. D. (2015). “Towards an optimal teacher salary schedule: Designing base salary to attract and retain effective teachers”, Economics of Education Review,47, pp. 143–167.
Kargas, A. & Tsokos, A. (2020). “Employer Branding Implementation and Human Resource Management in Greek Telecommunication Industry”, Administrative Sciences, 10(1), pp. 1-14.
Karimi, A. & Parsafar, E. (2017). “Relationship between human resource management system and organizational commitment of employees (Case study: One of the privatized banks)”, National Conference on Organizational Culture. (in Persian)
Kaye, B. & Sharon, J. (2001). “Retaining keg employees, public management”, Journal Jan Feb.
Khazaee, S., kheirandish, M., dehdashti shahrokh, Z., shirazi, M., & rasouli ghahroudi, M. (2020). “Presentation of employer Brand model for attractive and maintenance of employee”, Application of mixed approach, 10(39), pp. 7-30. (in Persian)
Khoshnevis, M. & Gholipour, A. (2017). “Exploring the Relationship between Employer Brand and Employees Retention”, International journal of scientific & engineering research, 8(10), pp. 141-151.
Kucherov, D. & Zavyalova, E. (2012). “HRD practices and talent management in the companies with the employer brand”, European Journal of Training and Development, 36(1), pp. 86-104.
Lambert, E. G., Hogan, N. L., & Griffin, M. L. (2008). “Being the Good Soldier Organizational Citizenship Behavior and Commitment among Correctional Staff”, Criminal Justice and Behavior, 35(1), pp. 56-68.
Lepak, D. P., Liao, H., Chung, Y., & Harden, E. E. (2006). “A Conceptual Review of Human Resource Management Systems in Strategic Human Resource Management Research”, Research in Personnel and Human Resources Management, 25(1), pp. 217-271.
Levinson, H., Price, C.R., Munden, K.J., Mandl, H.J., & Solley, C.M. (1962). “Men, Management and Mental Health”, Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Matongolo, A., Kasekende, F., & Mafabi, S. (2018). “Employer branding and talent retention: perceptions of employees in higher education institutions in Uganda”, Industrial and Commercial Training. ICT-03-2018-0031.
Mohamadnezhad Fadardi, M., Hamidizadeh, A., & Babashahi, J. (2016). “The Impact of Employer Brand on Employee Retention: Organizational Identity, Job Satisfaction and Organizational Commitment as Mediators”, Journal of Management and Development Process, 29(2), pp. 47-70. (in Persian)
Monteiro, B., Santos, V., Reis, I., Sampaio, M. C., Sousa, B., Martinho, F., Sousa, M. J., & Au-Yong-Oliveira, M. (2020). “Employer Branding Applied to SMEs: A PioneeringModel Proposal for Attracting and Retaining Talent”, Information (Switzerland), 11(12), p. 574.
Moshabaki, A. & Taghizadeh, A. (2019). “The Impact of the Employer Brand on Brand Champion Behavior: The Mediator Role of Organizational Identification”, Management Studies in Development and Evolution, 28(93), pp. 63-91. doi: 10.22054/jmsd.2019.10420 (in Persian)
Parish, Rebecca and Sense-interview with lani Guinier (2003). About the Measure of Meritocracy:
Rahimian, A. (2014). “Employer Brand, a Novel Strategy for Human Resource Management”, Journal of Research in Human Resources Management, 5(2), pp. 127-150. (in Persian)
Sefidgar, A. & Vazifehdoust, H. (2020). “The effect of employer brand and its dimensions on employees' satisfaction”, 12(47), pp. 214-234. (in Persian) 
Shaikh Ibrahim, N., Hashim, J., & Abdul Rahman, R. (2018). “The impact of employer branding and career growth on talent retention: the mediating role of recruitment practices in the Malaysian public sector”, Human resource management academic research society, 8(6), pp. 1034-1053.
Smith, PA. & Birney, LL. (2005). “The organizational trust of elementary schools and dimensions of student bullying”, Int. J. Educ. Manage, 19(6), pp. 469-485.
Suikkanen, E. (2010). How Does Employer Branding Increase Employee Retention, (Unpublished Dissertation) Metropolia University, the University of Lincoln, p. 222.
Ul Hadi, N. & Ahmed, Sh. (2018). “Role of Employer Branding Dimensions on Employee Retention: Evidence from Educational Sector”, Administrative sciences, 8(44), pp. 1-15.
Urbancová, H. & Hudáková, H. (2017). “Benefits of Employer Brand and theSupporting Trends”, Economics and Sociology, 10(4), pp. 41-50. doi:10.14254/2071-789X.2017/10-4/4
Valentine, S. & Barnett, T. (2003). “Ethics code awareness, perceived ethical values and organizational commitment”, Journal of Personal Selling and Sales Management, 23(4), pp. 359-367.