Designing a Tool to Assess Training Culture in the Iranian Public Organizations

Document Type : Research Article


1 Associate Professor, Department of Public Administration, Institute for Management and Planning Studies, Tehran, Iran

2 Assistant Professor, Department of Public Administration, Institute for Management and Planning Studies, Tehran, Iran

3 PhD Student, Department of Public Administration, Institute for Management and Planning Studies, Tehran, Iran


The purpose of the present study was to design a tool to assess the training culture in the Iranian public organizations. The research method adopted in the study was descriptive-survey. The sample consisted of 112 Iranian public organizations that were selected based on Cochran formula through simple random sampling method. In order to collect the data, a researcher-made questionnaire with 68 questions was used, and to analyze the collected data, exploratory factor analysis and one-sample t-test were run in SPSS. The results of exploratory factor analysis demonstrated that the training culture in the Iranian public organizations can be explained in three dimensions – namely continuous learning, liability of learners, and morality-based interactions – and 9 factors – including learner’s commitment and propensity, training tuned to professional needs, avoidance of unhealthy behaviors, motivation for learning, showing respect to the instructor, friendly relationships, morality-oriented critical thinking, and mutual respect in class. Moreover, the results of the one-sample t-test showed that the training culture of the employees of Iranian public organizations is not good and plans should be made to improve and enhance it. 


Main Subjects

Bates, T. (2001). “International distance education: Cultural and ethical issues”, Distance Education, 22 )1(, pp. 122-136.
Brown, A. & Evans, K. (1994). “Changing the training culture: Lessons from Anglo-German comparitions of vocational education and training”, British Journal of Education and Work, 7) 2(, pp. 5-15.
Daw, S. (2003). Determinants of successful training practices large Australian firms, Australia: NationSal Center for Vocational Education Research (NCVER).
Daway, L. & Suga, M. (2009). Education as Culture, Translator: Sarkarkarani, Tehran, Tarbiat Publishing. (in Persian)
Delong, D. & Fahey, L. (2000). “Diagnosing cultural barriers to knowledge management”, Academy of Management Executive, 14 (4), pp. 113-127.
Fazeli, N. A. (2011). Ethnography of education, Tehran, Scientific publication. (in Persian)
Galtung, J. (1991). “Structure, Culture and Intellectual Style: An Essay Comparing Saxonic, Teutonic, Gallic and Hipponic Approaches”, Social Science Information, 20 (6), pp. 817-856.
Gholami, R. (2013). Identifying the values and anti-values of student ethics: An analysis of the lived experience of students of Kurdistan University, Master Thesis, Department of Educational Sciences, University of Kurdistan. (in Persian)
Ham, S., Adams, D.R. (2004). “Corporate culture and absorptive capacity: The moderating role of national culture dimensions on innovation management”, International Business Review, 25 (4), pp. 1149-1168.
Hargreaves, D. H. (1996). “A Training Culture in Surgey”, BMJ, 31 (2), pp. 1635-1639.
Harris, T.B., Chung, W., & Hutchins, H.M. (2014). “Do trainer style and learner orientation predict training outcomes?”, Journal of Workplace Learning, 26 (5), pp. 331-344.
Hefler, G. (2013). Taking Steps: Formal Adult Education in Private and Organizational Life, Zurich, Lit Verlag Munster.
Kalantari, Kh. (2012). Data processing and analysis in social research using SPSS software, Tehran, Farhang Saba Publishing. (in Persian)
Khoshdaman, S. & Ayati, M. (2012). “Comparison of teaching and learning culture in two generations of faculty members of Birjand University from the perspective of the role of professor”, Khorasan Socio-Cultural Studies, 7 (2), pp. 85-108. (in Persian)
Klein (2014). Easy Guide to Factor Analysis, Translators: Seyed Jalal Sadr al-Sadat and Asghar Minaei, Tehran, Samat Publications. (in Persian)
Kumpulainen, K. & Renshaw (2007). “Cultures of Learning”, International Journal of Educational Research, 46 (4), pp. 109-115.
Lynton, R. P. & Pareek, U. (2005). Training for Development, New Delhi, Vistaar publication.
Markowitsch, J. & Hefler, G. (2007). To Train or not to train: Explaining differences in average enterprise training performance in Europe- a framework approach, Continuing Vocational Training Survey in Europe (CVTS).
Muzaffar, B. (2016). “The development and validation of a scale to measure training culture: The TC Scale”, Journal of Culture, Society and Development, 11 (2), pp. 49-58.
Neakookar, A., Mohammad-Davoodi, A. H., & Ghorchian, N. Gh. (2017). “Assessing the level of student culture of graduate students (Case study: students of region 5 of Islamic Azad University)”, Ethical Research, 7 (3), pp. 164-153. (in Persian)
Noe, R. A. (2012). Employee Training and Development, 8nd edition, McGraw-Hill, Irwin.
Polo, F., Cervai, S., & Kantola, J. (2018). “Training culture: a new conceptualization to capture values and meanings of training in organizations”, Journal of Workplace Learning, 30 (3). pp. 162-173.
Robbins, S.P. (1983). Organization Theory: Structure, Design and Applications, Englewood Cliffs, Prentice Hall Ince.
Safaei Movahed, S. (2012). Sociology of Education, Tehran, Ayesh. (in Persian)
Sarkararani, M. R. (2010). Culture of teaching and learning, an ethnographic research with an educational approach, Tehran, Madrasa Publications. (in Persian)
Seidman, A. (2005). The learning killer: disruptive student behavior in the classroom. Available from:
Seif, A. A. (2008). New Educational Psychology, 6th edition, Tehran, Doran. (in Persian)
Valimaa, J. (2008). “Cultural Studies in Higher Education Research”, Cultural  Perspectives on Higher Education, 11 (2), pp. 9-25.
Watkins, K. & Marsick, V. (1996). Information and incidental learning in the workplace, London, Rout Ledge.
Webster, B., Walker, E., & Brown, A. (2005). “Australian small business participation in training activities”, Education & Training, 47 (8), pp. 552-561.