The Identification of the Antecedents and Consequences of Organizational Impact Management Through Meta-Synthesis and Fuzzy Delphi Methods

Document Type : Research Article


1 Assistant Professor, Faculty of Management, Kharazmi University, Tehran, Iran

2 Associate Professor, Faculty of Management, Kharazmi University, Tehran, Iran

3 MSc, Faculty of Management, Kharazmi University, Tehran, Iran


The study at hand was carried out to identify the antecedents and consequences of organizational impact management. This study was applied in terms of purpose and mixed in terms of approach. In the qualitative phase, the meta-synthesis method was used. To this end, the studies on the antecedents and consequences of organizational impact management in valid datacenters between 1990 and 2021 were collected and examined. Out of these, 67 sources were adopted for the final analysis. To screen and confirm the findings of the qualitative phase, fuzzy Delphi method was used in the quantitative phase. The statistical population of the quantitative phase was comprised of the specialist clerks and experienced managers of Rojin Taak Agro-industries Co., from among whom 30 individuals were selected through purposive sampling. Based on the findings of the study, the antecedents of organizational impact management included three main categories, namely individual, organizational, and environmental categories. On the other hand, the consequences were classified into behavioral, professional, performance, and individual growth and development categories. The results of this study can be used by managers to enhance the positive aspects of organizational impact management and to avoid its negative aspects in the organization.


Main Subjects

حبیبی، رؤیا؛ محمدرضا ساکی (1391). «مدیریت تصویر از خود و عدالت سازمانی: بازیگران موفق یا مدیران موفق»، تحقیقات مدیریت آموزشی، 4(2)، ص 53 ـ 76.
حسن‌پور، محمدعلی؛ گلنار شجاعی باغینی (1395). «بررسی وضعیت مدیریت تصویرپردازی در بین کارمندان و مدیران (مطالعة موردی: دانشگاه صنعتی شاهرود)»، پایان‌نامة کارشناسی‌ارشد، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، واحد شاهرورد.
دامغانیان، حسین؛ سید عباس ابراهیمی؛ مرضیه نیکویی (1397). «تاکتیک‏های مدیریت تصویرپردازی دبیران (مطالعۀ موردی: دبیران مدارس متوسطۀ دوم شهرستان‏های سمنان، مهدی‌شهر، سرخه»، مدیریت فرهنگ سازمانی، 16(3)، ص 591 ـ 615.
دامغانیان, حسین؛ بنفشه فتوت؛ سهیلا فراهانی؛ حمید بورقانی فراهانی (1399). «بررسی نقش میانجی فنون تصویرپردازی ذهنی دیگران در تأثیر جوّ سازمانی بر ادراک از عدالت سازمانی»، مطالعات رفتار سازمانی، 9(3)، ص 171 ـ 190.
دامغانیان، حسین؛ عباس‌علی رستگار؛ نرگس محمدی‌نژاد پاشاکی (1396). «مقایسة ارتباط ابعاد تیپ شخصیتی و مدیریت تصویرپردازی با استفاده از شاخص نمای مایرز‌ـ بریگز»، پایان‌نامة کارشناسی‌ارشد، دانشگاه سمنان.
دامغانیان، حسین؛ محمد یزدانی‌زیارت (1395). «پیش‌بینی‌کننده‌های وضعی و شخصی رفتارهای مدیریت تصویرپردازی ذهنی در سازمان»، مطالعات مدیریت بهبود و تحول، 25(80)، ص 27 ـ 46.
رعنایی کردشولی، حبیب‌الله؛ وحید دانشور (1390). «طراحی مدل جامع تعالی منابع انسانی با استفاده از روش فراترکیب کیفی»، مطالعات منابع انسانی، 1(1)، ص 1 ـ 20.
شکاری، غلام‌عباس؛ غلام‌رضا عنایتی؛ ابراهیم مهدی‌نژاد ثانی (1395). «شناسایی و رتبه‌بندی عوامل مؤثر بر تصویرپردازی (مورد مطالعه: شرکت پدیدة مشهد)»، اولین کنفرانس ملی تحول و نوآوری سازمانی با رویکرد اقتصاد مقاومتی، مشهد، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی مشهد.
طبرسا، غلام‌علی؛ منصوره معینی کربکندی (1394). «بررسی رابطة مدیریت تصویرپردازی و فرسودگی شغلی»، مطالعات مدیریت بهبود و تحول، 23(76)، ص 157 ـ 186.
عباس‌پور، عباس؛ فاطمه شیخی‌نژاد؛ آرش رسته‌مقدم (1392). «سنتز ادبیات سیاست‌های سازمانی»، مدیریت بر آموزش انتظامی، 23، ص 1 ـ 20.
غفاری، رحمان؛ مسعود احمدی؛ یحیی رستم‌نیا (1397). «سازمان دورو، ثمرة فرهنگ سازمانی نامطلوب: کهن‌الگوی رفتاری مدیران ماکیاولی و تصویرپردازی هدفمند از خود»، مطالعات رفتار سازمانی، 7(4)، ص 139 ـ 164.
محمدپور، احمد؛ رسول صادقی؛ مهدی رضایی (1389). «روش‌های تحقیق ترکیبی به‎ عنوان سومین جنبش روش‌شناختی: مبانی نظری و اصول عملی»، جامعه‌شناسی کاربردی، 21(2)، ص 77 ـ 100.
مهدوی، علی‌رضا (1396). «تأثیر تاکتیک‌های مدیریت تصویرپردازی بر عملکرد کارکنان وزارت دفاع»، چهارمین کنفرانس اقتصاد و مدیریت کاربردی با رویکرد ملی، بابلسر.
Abaspour, A., Sheikhee Nezhad, F., & Rasteh Moghadam, A. (2014). “A synthesis of literature on organizational politics”, The Quarterly Management on Police Training, (23), pp. 1-20. (in Persian)
Adame, E. A. & Bisel, R. S. (2019). “Can Perceptions of an Individual’s Organizational Citizenship Be Influenced Via Strategic Impression Management Messaging?”, International Journal of Business Communication, 56(1), pp. 7-30.
Amaral, A. A., Powell, D. M., & Ho, J. L. (2019). “Why does impression management positively influence interview ratings? The mediating role of competence and warmth”, International Journal of Selection and Assessment, 27(4), pp. 315-327.
An, J. H. J. (2015). “Respect: Refrainment from Impression Management Behavior Despite High Impression Motivation”, Wharton Research Scholars, 125.
Arseneault, R. & Roulin, N. (2021). “A theoretical model of cross‐cultural impression management in employment interviews”, International Journal of Selection and Assessment, 29(3-4), pp. 352-366.
Ashford, S. J. & Northcraft, G. B. (1992). “Conveying More (or less) Than We Realize: The Role of Impression-management in Feedback-seeking”, Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 53, pp. 310-334.
Barsness, Z. I., Diekmann, K. A., & Seidel, M. D. L. (2005). “Motivation and Opportunity: The Role of Remote Work, Demographic Dissimilarity, and Social Network Centrality in Impression Management”, Academy of Management Journal, 48(3), pp. 401-419.
Bilbow, G. T. (1997). “Cross-cultural Impression Management in the Multicultural Workplace: The Special Case of Hong Kong”, Journal of Pragmatics, 28(4), pp. 461-487.
Boiral, O., Brotherton, M. C., & Talbot, D. (2020). “Building Trust in the Fabric of Sustainability Ratings: An Impression Management Perspective”, Journal of Cleaner Production, 120942.
Bolino, M. C., Varela, J. A., Bande, B., & Turnley, W. H. (2006). “The Impact of Impression‐management Tactics on Supervisor Ratings of Organizational Citizenship Behavior”, Journal of Organizational Behavior: The International Journal of Industrial, Occupational and Organizational Psychology and Behavior, 27(3), pp. 281-297.
Bolino, M. C., Klotz, A. C., & Daniels, D. (2014). “The Impact of Impression Management Over Time”, Journal of Managerial Psychology, 29(3), pp. 266-284.
Bourdage, J. S., Wiltshire, J., & Lee, K. (2015). “Personality and Workplace Impression Management: Correlates and Implications”, Journal of Applied Psychology, 100(2), 537.
Brouer, R. L., Badaway, R. L., Gallagher, V. C., & Haber, J. A. (2014). “Political Skill Dimensionality and Impression Management Choice and Effective Use”, Journal of Business and Psychology, 30(2), pp. 217-233.
Brown, A. (2002). “Applicant Impression Management: Dispositional Influences and Consequences for Recruiter Perceptions of Fit and Similarity”, Journal of Management, 28(1), pp. 27–46. doi:10.1016/s0149-2063(01)00131-3.
Chaudhry, N.I., Awan, M.U., & Tariq, U. (2016). “Role Of Appraisal Politics and Impression Management in Turnover of Dis-satisfied Employees: Empirical Evidence From the Public Sector of Pakistan”, Journal of Quality and Technology Management, Vol. XII, Issue I, pp. 91–119.
Cheng, C. H. & Lin, Y. (2002). “Evaluating the Best Main Battle Tank Using Fuzzy Decision Theory with Linguistic Criteria Evaluation”, European Journal of Operational Research, 142, pp. 174-186.
Crawford, W. S., Kacmar, K. M., & Harris, K. J. (2018). “Do You See Me as I See Me? The Effects of Impression Management Incongruence of Actors and Audiences”, Journal of Business and Psychology, doi:10.1007/s10869-018-9549-6.
Cvb, C.V., Therasa, C., & Daisy, A. (2019). “Impression Management Tactics as a Psychological booster for the Communication of IT Employees – Smart PLS Approach”, Revista de Psicología, 37, pp. 683-707. 10.18800/psico.201902.012.
Damghanian, H., Ebrahimi, S., & Nikooei, M. (2018). “Teachers’ Impression Management Tactics (Case Study: Teachers in Girls’ High Schools in Semnan, Mahdishar, and Sorkhe)”, Organizational Culture Management, 16(3), pp. 591-615. doi: 10.22059/jomc.2018.217240.1006992. (in Persian)
Damghanian, H., Fotovat, B., Burghani Farahani, S., & Burghani Farahani, H. (2020). “Investigating the Mediating Role of Impression Management Techniques as Mediator in in the Effect of Organizational Climate on Perception of Organizational Justice”, Organizational Behaviour Studies Quarterly, 9(3), pp. 171-190. (in Persian)
Damghanian, H. & Yazdani Ziarat, M. (2016). “Situational and Dispositional Antecedents of Impression Management Behaviors in Organization”, Management Studies in Development and Evolution, 25(80), pp. 27-46. doi: 10.22054/jmsd.2016.4026. (in Persian)
Damghanian, H., Rastegar, A.A., & MohammadiNejad Pashaki, N. (2018). “Comparing the Relationship between Personality Type Dimensions and Imaging Management Using Myers-Briggs View Index”, M.Sc. Thesis, Semnan University. (in Persian)
Delgado-Rodríguez, N., Hernández-Fernaud, E., Rosales, C., Díaz-Vilela, L., Isla-Díaz, R., & Díaz-Cabrera, D. (2018). “Contextual Performance in Academic Settings: The Role of Personality, Self-efficacy, and Impression Management”, Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 34(2), pp. 63-68.
Deluga, R. J. & Perry, J. T. (1994). “The Role of Subordinate Performance and Ingratiation in Leader-member Exchanges”, Group & Organization Management, 19(1), pp. 67-86.
Douglas, A. C., Mills, J. E., Niang, M., Stepchenkova, S., Byun, S., Ruffini, C., & Atallah, M. (2008). “Internet Addiction: Meta-synthesis of Qualitative research for the decade 1996–2006”, Computers in human behavior, 24(6), pp. 3027-3044.
Drory, A. & Zaidman, N. (2007). “Impression management behavior: effects of the organizational system”, Journal of Managerial Psychology, 22(3), pp. 290–308. doi:10.1108/02683940710733106.
Ellis, A. P., West, B. J., Ryan, A. M., & DeShon, R. P. (2002). “The Use of Impression Management Tactics in Structured Interviews: A Function of Question Type?”, Journal of Applied Psychology, 87(6), 1200.
Feldman, D. C. & Klich, N. R. (1991). “Impression Management and Career Strategies. In R. A. Giacalone & P. Rosenfeld (Eds.)”, Applied impression management, How Image Making Affects Managerial Decisions, pp. 67-80. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
Gallagher, V. C. (2007). Situational and Dispositional Antecedents and Consequences of Impression Management Tactics: The Role of Political Skill, Electronic Theses, Treatises and Dissertations, Paper 4381.
Gardner, W.L. & Martinko, M.J. (1988). “Impression management in organizations”, Journal of Management, 14, pp. 321–338.
Goffman, E. (1959). The presentation of self in everyday life, Garden City, NY: Doubleday.
González Jimarez, A. I., Velasco Matus, P. W., & Tavizón Sierra, B. (2018). “Impression management strategies and their relationship with psychological variables in a Mexican simple”, Vertientes Revista Especializada en Ciencias de la Salud, 20(2), pp. 12-21.
Guadagno, R. E. & Cialdini, R. B. (2007). “Gender Differences in Impression Management in Organizations: A Qualitative Review”, Sex Roles, 56(7-8), pp. 483-494.
Habibi, R. & Saki, M. (2013). “Self Impression Management and Organizational Justice: Successful Players or Successful Managers?”, Educational Administration Research, 4(14), pp. 53-76. (in Persian)
Harris, K. J., Gallagher, V. C., & Rossi, A. M. (2013). “Impression management (IM) behaviors, IM culture, and job outcomes”, Journal of Managerial Issues, pp. 154-171.
Harris, K. J., Kacmar, M., Zivnuska, S., & Shaw, J. D. (2007). “The Impact of Political Skill on Impression Management Effectiveness”, Journal of Applied Psychology, 92(1), pp. 278–285.
Hart, W., Breeden, C. J., & Richardson, K. (2019). “Differentiating dark personalities on impression management”, Personality and Individual Differences, 147, pp. 58-62.
Hassanpour, M. A. & Shojaei Baghini, G. (2015). “Investigating the Status of Imaging Management Among Employees and Managers (Case study: Shahroud University of Technology)”, Master Thesis, Islamic Azad University, Shahroud Branch. (in Persian)
Hietanen, V. (2019). Effects of Ingratiation and Self-promotion on Warmth and Competence, Aalto University, School of Business, Bachelor ́s Program in International Business.
Higgins, C. A., Judge, T. A., & Ferris, G. R. (2003). “Influence Tactics and Work Outcomes: A Meta‐analysis”, Journal of Organizational Behavior: The International Journal of Industrial, Occupational and Organizational Psychology and Behavior, 24(1), pp. 89-106.
Jaiswal, P. (2017). “Impression Management Tactics and Need for Power: Moderating Role of Machiavellian Organizational Culture”, Riding The New Tides.
Kang, D. S., Gold, J., & Kim, D. (2012). “Responses to Job Insecurity”, Career Development International.
Keiser, N. L. & Payne, S. C. (2019). “Are employee surveys biased? Impression management as a response bias in workplace safety constructs”, Safety Science, 118, pp. 453–465. doi:10.1016/j.ssci.2019.05.051.
Khilji, S. E., Zeidman, N., Drory, A., Tirmizi, A., & Srinivas, E. S. (2010). “Crossvergence of values: An analysis of the use of impression management strategies in India, Israel and Pakistan”, International Business Review, 19(4), pp. 419–431.
Kim, J. & Oh, I-S., Holtz, B., Han, S., & Hu, D. (2019). “The Antecedents and Consequences of Impression Management Across Culture: A Meta-Analysis”, Academy of Management Proceedings, 11127. 10.5465/AMBPP.2019.11127abstract.
Klotz, A. C., He, W., Yam, K. C., Bolino, M. C., Wei, W., & Houston III, L. (2018). “Good Actors But Bad Apples: Deviant Consequences of Daily Impression Management at Work”, Journal of Applied Psychology, 103(10), 1145.
Kooshki Jahromi, A., Rezaei-Manesh, B., & Hosseinipour Hadshi, D. (2019). “The Impact of Organizational Culture on Imaging Management with the Mediating Role of Employee Maturity”, Master Thesis, Allameh Tabatabai University. (in Persian)
Krieg, A., Ma, L., & Robinson, P. (2018). “Making a Good Impression at Work: National Differences in Employee Impression Management Behaviors in Japan, Korea, and the United States”, The Journal of Psychology, 152(2), pp. 110–130. doi:10.1080/00223980.2017.1417817.
Langer, M., König, C.J., & Hemsing, V. (2020). “Is Anybody Listening? The Impact of Automatically Evaluated Job Interviews on Impression Management and Applicant Reactions”, Journal of Managerial Psychology, Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print.
Leary, M.R. & Kowalski, R.M. (1990). “Impression Management: A Literature Review and Two Component Model”, Psychological Bulletin, 107, pp. 34-47.
Mahdavi, A. (2017). “The Impact of Imaging Management Tactics on the Performance of Ministry of Defense Staff”, Fourth Conference on Economics and Applied Management with a National Approach, Babolsar. (in Persian)
Maher, L. P., Gallagher, V. C., Rossi, A. M., Ferris, G. R., & Perrewé, P. L. (2018). “Political Skill and Will as Predictors of Impression Management Frequency and style: A three-study investigation”, Journal of Vocational Behavior, 107, pp. 276-294.
Mohammadpour, A., Sadeghi, R., & Rezaei, M. (2009). “Combined research methods as the third methodological movement: theoretical foundations and practical principles”, Applied Sociology, 21(2), pp. 77-100. (in Persian)
Montagliani, A. & Giacalone, R. A. (1998). “Impression Management and Cross-Cultural Adaption”, The Journal of Social Psychology, 138(5), pp. 598–608.
Morrison, E. W. & Bies, R. J. (1991). “Impression Management in the Feedback-seeking Process: A Literature Review and Research Agenda”, Academy of Management Review, 16, pp. 522-541.
Olay, Ö. & Öğrencileri, S. Ü. Y. (2017). “Exploring The Relationship Between Cultural Intelligence and Impression Management-Case Study: Foreign Students of Selçuk University”, Journal of Academic Value Studies, 3(17), pp. 251-260.
Probst, T. M., Lixin, J., & Bohle, S. A. L. (2020). “Job Insecurity and Impression Management Which is the Horse and Which is the Cart When it Comes to Job Performance?”, Career Development International, 25(3), pp. 306-324.
Ranaei Kurdsholi, H. & Daneshvar, V. (2010). “Designing a Comprehensive Model of Human Resource Excellence Using a Qualitative Meta-Combination Method”, Human Resource Studies, 1(1), pp. 1-20. (in Persian)
Riemer, H. & Shavitt, S. (2011). “Impression Management in Survey Responding: Easier for Collectivists or Individualists?”, Journal of consumer psychology: the official journal of the Society for Consumer Psychology, 21(2), pp. 157–168.
Roulin, N. & Bourdage, J. S. (2017). “Once an Impression Manager, Always an Impression Manager? Antecedents of Honest and Deceptive Impression Management Use and Variability Across Multiple Job Interviews”, Frontiers in psychology, 8, 29.
Roulin, N. & Krings, F. (2016). “When Winning is Everything: The Relationship Between Competitive Worldviews and job Applicant Faking”, Appl. Psychol. Int. Rev, 65, pp. 643–670. doi: 10.1111/apps.12072.
Sanaria, A. D. (2016). “A Conceptual Framework for Understanding the Impression Management Strategies Used by Women in Indian Organizations”, South Asian Journal of Human Resources Management, 3(1), pp. 25–39.
Schlenker, B. R. (1980). Impression Management: The Self-concept, Social Identity, and Interpersonal Relations, Monterey, CA: Brooks/Cole.
Schr, C. M. & Walther, B. R. (2011). “Strategic Benchmarks in Earnings Announcements: The Selective Disclosure of Prior-Period Earnings Components”, Accounting Review, 75, pp. 151-177.
Shekari, GH., Enayati, Gh., & Mehdinejad Sani, E., (2015). “Identification and Ranking of Factors Affecting Imaging (Case study: Padideh Mashhad Company)”, The First National Conference on Organizational Transformation and Innovation with the Approach of Resistance Economics, Mashhad, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences. (in Persian)
Stevens, C. K. & Kristof, A. L. (1995). “Making the Right Impression: A Field Study of Applicant Impression Management During Job Interviews”, Journal of Applied Psychology, 80, pp. 587-606.
Tabarsa, G. & Moeini Korbekandi, M. (2014). “Investigation The Relationship Between Impression Management and Job Burnout”, Management Studies in Development and Evolution, 23(76), pp. 157-186. (in Persian)
Tedeschi, J. T. & Riess, M. (1981). Identities, the phenomenal self, and laboratory research, In J.T. Tedeschi (Ed.), Impression management theory and social psychological research, New York: Academic Press.
Topp, K. L. (2001). Perceptions of organizational cultures and impression management behaviors: An investigation of the relationship, Saint Louis University.
Valerius, L. & Parr, M. G. (1997). “Antecedents of and Engagement in Impression Management Tactics Among College Students”, SCHOLE: A Journal of Leisure Studies and Recreation Education, 12(1), pp. 31-46.
Van Iddekinge, C. H., McFarland, L. A., & Raymark, P. H. (2007). “Antecedents of Impression Management Use and Effectiveness in a Structured Interview”, Journal of Management, 33(5), pp. 752-773
Wang, Z., Zhang, H., Chen, X., & Duan, Y. (2016). “Impression management tactics of protégés and mentors’ knowledge-sharing behavior”, Social Behavior and Personality: An International Journal, 44(11), pp. 1825–1838. doi:10.2224/sbp.2016.44.11.1825.
Ward, A.-K. & Ravlin, E. C. (2017). “Building influence as an outsider: A theoretical approach to cross-cultural impression management”, Human Resource Management Review, 27(3), pp. 491–506.
Wayne, S. J. & Ferris, G. R. (1990). “Influence Tactics, Affect, and Exchange Quality in Supervisor-subordinate Interactions: A Laboratory Experiment and Field study”, Journal of Applied Psychology, 75, pp. 487-499.
Wayne, S. J. & Green, S. A. (1993). “The effects of leadermember exchange on employee citizenship and impression management behavior”, Human Relations, 46, pp. 1431-1440.
Wayne, S. J. & Kacmar, K. M. (1991). “The effects of impression management on the performance appraisal process”, Organizational behavior and human decision processes, 48(1), pp. 70-88.
Wayne, S. J. & Liden, R. C. (1995). “Effects of Impression Management on Performance Ratings: A Longitudinal Study”, Academy of Management Journal, 38, pp. 232-260.
Weng, L-C. & Chang, W-Ch. (2015). “Does Impression Management Really Help? A Multilevel Testing of the Mediation Role of Impression Management Between Personality Traits and Leader-member Exchange”, Asia Pacific Management Review, 20(1), pp. 2-10.
Xie, J., Huang, Q., Wang, H., & Shen, M. (2019). “Coping with Negative Workplace Gossip: The Joint roles of self-monitoring and Impression Management Tactics”, Personality and Individual Differences, 151, 109482. doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2019.06.025.
Xue, X., Song, He., & Tang, Yu. (2015). “The Relationship Between Political Skill and Employee Voice Behavior from an Impression Management Perspective”, Journal of Applied Business Research, 31, pp. 1877-1888. 10,1903/jabr.v31i5,9400.
Yigit, A. O. & Ay, F. A. (2019). “The Effect of Emotional Labor and Impression Management on Burnout: Example of Family Physicians”, Pakistan journal of medical sciences, 35(3), pp. 793–796.
Zaidman, N. & Drory, A. (2001). “Upward impression management in the work place cross-cultural analysis”, International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 25(6), pp. 671–690. doi:10.1016/s0147-1767(01)00031.
Zhao, H. (2012). “What You See May Not Be Entirely Negative: an Impression Management Approach to Job Insecurity and Its Consequences”, Journal of Applied Psychology, 99(1), 86.
Zimmer, L. (2006). “Qualitative Meta‐synthesis: A Question of Dialoguing with Texts”, Journal of advanced nursing, 53(3), pp. 311-318.
Zivnuska, S., Kacmar, K. M., Witt, L. A., Carlson, D. S., & Bratton, V. K. (2004). “Interactive effects of impression management and organizational politics on job performance”, Journal of Organizational Behavior: The International Journal of Industrial, Occupational and Organizational Psychology and Behavior, 25(5), pp. 627-640.