Hypocrisy in Organization Unveiled Through Phenomenography: An Understanding of Triangulated Understandings

Document Type : Research Article


1 Associate Professor, Vali-e-Asr University, Rafsanjan, Iran

2 M.Sc. Vali-e-Asr University, Rafsanjan, Iran


The purpose of this study is to explore and classify the perceptions of the phenomenon of hypocrisy in organization from viewpoint of employees in a university using phenomenography, so that achieving to a deeper understanding of this phenomenon. Sampling was done by maximum variation method and sample size was determined 30 people using theoretical saturation. Some open semi-structural interviews were done among participants; then data was coded using Maxqda. After analyzing interviews, five perspectives were created: concepts based on impression management techniques (ingratiation and blasting), the person’s hidden benefit-seeking continuous intention (protecting post, promoting post, and attracting benefits), person’s active hypocritical properties (self-monitoring and learning dysfunctional political behaviors), managerial flattering-culture, and political voice and silence culture. Thereafter, those mentioned classes were located on a triple-level hierarchy (behavioral techniques, individual and organization). Findings were validated through credibility, transferability, dependability, and conformability indexes.


دانایی‌فرد، حسن؛ کاظمی، سیدحسین (1388). «ارتقای پژوهش­های تفسیری در سازمان: مروری بر مبانی فلسفی و فرآیند اجرای روش پدیدار‌نگاری». فصل­نامة مطالعات مدیریت بهبود و تحول، شمارة 61، صفحات 147-121.
2. لگزیان، محمد؛ مرتضوی، سعید؛ کاظمی، سیدحسین (1390). «شفافیت اطلاعات از منظر برنامه­ریزان دولت الکترونیک». فصل‌نامة پردازش و مدیریت اطلاعات، زمستان، ویژه­نامة ذخیره، بازیابی و مدیریت اطلاعات، صفحات 285-255.
3. هادوی‌نژاد، مصطفی؛ دانایی‌فرد، حسن؛ آذر، عادل؛ خائف الهی، احمدعلی (1389). «کاوش فرآیند رفتارهای منافقانه در ارتباطات بین­فردی در سازمان با استفاده از نظریة داده بنیاد». اندیشة مدیریت راهبردی، سال چهارم، شمارة اول، صفحات 130-81.
4. هادوی‌نژاد، مصطفی؛ دانایی‌فرد، حسن؛ آذر، عادل؛ خائف الهی، احمدعلی (1392). «رفتارهای منافقانه در ارتباطات بین‌فردی سازمان». چشم­انداز مدیریت دولتی، شمارة 13، صفحات 40-15.
5. Appelbaum, S. H.; Hughes, B. (1998). “Ingratiation as a political tactic: Effects within the organization”, Management Decision, 36(2), 85-95.
6. Argyris, C.; Schon, D. A. (1974). Theory in Practice: Increasing Professional Effectiveness. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
7. Aronson, E. (1992). “The return of the repressed: Dissonance theory makes a comeback”. Psychological Inquiry, 3(4), 303-311.
8. Aronson, E.; Fried, C.; Stone, J. (1991). “Overcoming denial and increasing the intention to use condoms through the induction of hypocrisy”. American Journal of Public Health, 81(12), 1636-1638.
9. Aryee, S.; Wyatt, T.;, Stone, R. (1996). “Early career outcomes of graduate employees: The effect of mentoring and ingratiation”. Journal of Management Studies, 33(1), 95-118.
10. Brunsson, N. (1989). The organization of Hypocrisy: Talk, Action and Decision in Organizations, London, Wiley.
11. Cardy, R. L.; Dobbins, G. H. (1986). “Affect and appraisal accuracy: Liking as an integral dimension on evaluating performance”. Journal of Applied Psychology, 71, 672-678.
12. Charette, R. (2006). “Organizational hypocrisy". Government Executive, 38(7), 68-70.
13. Creswell, J. W. (2012). Educational Research: Planning, Conducting, and Evaluating Quantitative and Qualitative Research, (ed. 4), Boston, Pearson.
14. Creswell, J. W.; Miller, D.L. (2000). “Determining validity in qualitative inquiry”.Theory into Practice, 39(3), 124-130.
15. Deal, T.; Kennedy, A. (1982). Corporate Culture: The Rites and Rituals of Corporate Life. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley Publishing.
16. Deutsch, M.; Gerard, H. B. (1955). “A study of normative and informational social influences upon individual judgment”. The Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 51(3), 629-636.
17. Fried, C. B.; Aronson, E. (1995). “Hypocrisy, misattribution, and dissonance reduction”. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 21(9), 925-933.
18. Gardner, W. L.; Martinko, M. J. (1988). “Impression management in organizations”. Journal of Management, 14(2), 321-338.
19. Gawthrop, L. C. (1997). “Democracy, bureaucracy, and hypocrisy redux: A search for sympathy and compassion”. Public Administration Review, 57(3), 205-210.
20. Gilby, T. (1979). "Hypocrisy". In P.K. Meagher & O'Brien, T.C. (Eds.), Encyclopedic dictionary of religion, Washington, DC: Corpus Publications, p.1752.
21. Gilbert, D. T; Jones, E. E. (1986). “Exemplification: The self‐presentation of moral character”, Journal of Personality, 54(3), 593-615.
22. Gilmore, D. C.; Ferris, G. R. (1989). “The effects of applicant impression management tactics on interviewer judgments”. Journal of Management, 15(4), 557-564.
23. Glaser, B. G. (1978). Theoretical Sensitivity: Advances in the Methodology of Grounded Theory, CA: Sociology Press Mill Valley.
24. Jones, E. (1964). Ingratiation. New York, Appleton-Century-Crofts.
25. Jones, E. E.; Pittman, T. S. (1982). “Toward a general theory of strategic self-presentation”. Psychological Perspectives on the Self, 1, 231-262.
26. Judge, T. A.; Bretz, R. D. (1994). “Political influence behavior and career success”. Journal of Management, 20(1), 43-65.
27. Lamb, P.; Sandberg, J.; Liesch, P. W. (2011). “Small firm internationalisation unveiled through phenomenography”. Journal of International Business Studies, 42(5), 672-693.
28. Lincoln, Y.; Guba, E. (1985). Naturalistic Inquiry. CA: Sage Publications.
29. Martin, D. C. (1987). “Factors influencing pay decisions: Balancing managerial vulnerabilities”. Human Relations, 40(7), 417-429.
30. Marton, F.; Yan Pong, W. (2005). “On the unit of description in phenomenography”. Higher Education Research & Development, 24(4), 335-348.
31. Pandey, J. (1981). “A note about social power through ingratiation among workers”. Journal of Occupational Psychology, 54(1), 65-67.
32. Rosenfeld, P.; Giacalone, R. A.; Riordan, C. A. (1995). Impression Management in Organizations: Theory, Measurement, Practice. London, Routledge.
33. Sandberg, J. (2000). “Understanding human competence at work: An interpretative approach”. Academy of Management Journal, 43(1), 9–25.
34. Thacker, R. A.; Wayne, S. J. (1995). “An examination of the relationship between upward influence tactics and assessments of promotability”. Journal of Management, 21(4), 739-756.
35. Van Manen, M. (1990). Researching lived experience: Human science for an action sensitive pedagogy. New York, Suny Press.
36. Waldo, D. (1977). Democracy, Bureaucracy, and Hypocrisy. Berkeley, CA: Institute of Governmental Studies, University of California.
37. Wayne, S. J.; Ferris, G. R. (1990). “Influence tactics, affect, and exchange quality in supervisor-subordinate interactions: A laboratory experiment and field study”. Journal of Applied Psychology, 75(5), 487-499.