انعطاف پذیری منابع انسانی، خلاقیت، و نوآوری سازمانی در شرکت‏های بیمه

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری، دانشکدة اقتصاد- مدیریت و علوم اداری، دانشگاه سمنان، سمنان، ایران

2 دانشیار، دانشکدة اقتصاد- مدیریت و علوم اداری، دانشگاه سمنان، سمنان، ایران

3 دانشجوی دکتری، دانشکدة مدیریت و اقتصاد، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران، ایران

چکیده

نیروی انسانی مهم‏ترین منبع سازمان است. در صورتی که منابع انسانی انعطاف‏پذیر باشد، نقش پُررنگ و مؤثری در عملکرد سازمان ایفا می‏کند. از این‏ رو، در این مطالعه تأثیر انعطاف‏پذیری منابع انسانی بر خلاقیت و نوآوری سازمانی در دو سطح فردی و سازمانی بررسی می‏‏شود. این مطالعه بر روی 147 نفر از مدیران واحدهای مختلف بیست شرکت بیمه انجام شده است. ابزار جمع‏آوری داده‏های تحقیق پرسش‏نامه است. روایی محتوا و سازة پرسش‏نامه به ترتیب با استفاده از آرای خبرگان و تحلیل عاملی تأییدی انجام شد. پایایی ابزار تحقیق از طریق آلفای کرونباخ و تحلیل عاملی تأییدی سنجیده شد و هر سه متغیر تحقیق روایی و پایایی قابل قبولی داشتند. به منظور تحلیل داده‏ها، از مدل‏سازی معادلات ساختاری، تحلیل عاملی تأییدی، و رگرسیون سلسله‏مراتبی استفاده شد. یافته‏ها نشان می‏دهد که خلاقیت به صورت نسبی رابطة بین انعطاف‏پذیری منابع انسانی و نوآوری سازمانی را میانجی می‏کند. همچنین، یافته‏ها نشان می‏دهد که انعطاف‏پذیری منابع انسانی اثر درخور توجهی بر خلاقیت در دو سطح فردی و سازمانی دارد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


Amabile, TM., Conti, R., Coon, H., Lazenby, J. and Herron, M. (1996). Assessing the work environment for creativity, Academy of Management Journal, 39(5): 1154-1184.
Amabile, T.M. (1983). The social psychology of creativity, Springer-Verlag, New York.
Amabile, T.M. (1998). How to kill creativity, Harvard Business Review, 76(5): 77-87.
Anderson, J.C. and Gerbing, D.W. (1988). Structural Equation Modeling in Practice: A Review and Recommended Two-step Approach, Psychological Bulletin, 103(3): 411-423.
Arbuckle, J.L. (2006). AMOS 7.0. IL: SPSS, Chicago.
Atkinson, J. (1984). Manpower strategies for flexible organizations, Personnel Management: 28-31.
Bagozzi, R.P. and Phillips, L.W. (1982). Representing and Testing Organizational Theories: A Holistic Construal, Administrative Science Quarterly, 27(2): 459-489.
Bagozzi, R.P. and Yi, Y. (1988). On the Evaluation of Structural Equation Models, Academy of Management Science, 16(1): 74-94.
Baron, R.A. and Tang, J. (2011). The role of entrepreneurs in firm-level innovation: Joint effects of positive affect, creativity, and environmental dynamism, Journal of Business Venturing, 26: 1.
10. Baron, R.M. and Kenny, D.A. (1986). The Moderator–Mediator Variable Distinction in Social Psychological Research, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51(6): 1173-1182.
11. Batt, R. (2002). Managing Customer Services: Human Resource Practices, Quit Rates, and Sales Growth, Academy of Management Journal, 45(3): 587-597.
12. Beltran-Martin, I., Roca-Puig, V., Escrig-Tena, A. and Bou-Llusar, J.C. (2008). Human Resource flexibility as a Mediating Variable Between High Performance Work Systems and Performance, Journal of Management, 34: 1009-1044.
13. Bentler, P.M. (1990). Comparative Fit Indexes in Structural Models, Psychological Bulletin, 107: 238-246.
14. Bhattacharya, M., Gibson, D. and Doty, D. (2005). The Effects of Flexibility in Employee Skills, Employee Behaviors, and Human Resource Practices on Firm performance, Journal of Management, 31: 622-640.
15. Bollen, K.A. (1989). Structural Equations with Latent Variables, John Wiley and Sons, New York.
16. Byrne, B.M. (1998). Structural Equation Modeling with LISREL, PRELIS, and SIMPLIS: Basic Concepts, Applications, and Programming, Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
17. Chan, L.L.M., Shafer, M.A. and Snape, E. (2004). In Search of Sustained Competitive Advantage: The Impact of Organizational Culture, Competitive Strategy and Human Resource Management Practices on Firm Performance, The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 15(1): 17-35.
18. Cheng, V.M. (2011). Infusing creativity into Eastern classrooms: Evaluations from student perspectives, Thinking Skills and Creativity, 6: 68.
19. Claretha, H. (2010). People as Technology Conceptual Model: Toward a New Value Creation Paradigm for Strategic Human Resource Development, Human Resource Development Review, 9: 48-71.
20. Czarnitzki, D. and Kraft, K. (2004). Firm leadership and innovative performance: evidence from seven EU countries, Small Business Economics, 22: 325-32.
21. Damanpour, F. (1991). Organizational innovation: a meta-analysis of effects of determinants and moderators, Academy of Management Journal, 34: 555-590.
22. Dewett, T. (2004). Employee creativity and The Role of Risk, European Journal of Innovation Management, 7(4): 257-262.
23. Fornell, C. and Larcker, D.G. (1981). Evaluating Structural Equation Models with Unobservable Variables and Measurement Error, Journal of Marketing Research, 18(1): 39-50.
24. Fraser, K. and Hvolby, H.H. (2010). Effective teamworking: can functional flexibility act as an enhancing factor?, Team Performance Management, 16: 74-94.
25. Fridrich, A. (1998). Functional flexibility: Merely or acting stretegically?, Employee Relations, 20: 423-504.
26. Grabner, I. (2007). managing organizational creativity Motivational aspects of management control systems for creative emplpyee, Journal of Managing Organizational Creativity, 23: 2-4.
27. Gumusluoglu, L. and Ilsev, A. (2007). Transformational leadership, creativity, and organizational innovation, Journal of Business Research, 62: 461-473.
28. Hill, C.W.L. and Jones, G.R. (2007). Strategic Management: An Integrated Approach, 7th Ed., Houghton Mifflin, Boston.
29. Hung, YYR., Lien, YHB., Yang, B., Wu, CM., and Kuo, YM. (2011). Impact of TQM and organizational learning on innovation performance in the high-tech industry, Journal of International Business Review, 20(2): 213-225.Jaccard, J. and Wan, C.K. (1995). Measurement Error in the Analysis of Interaction Effects between Continuous Predictors Using Multiple Regression: Multiple Indicators and Structural Equation Approach, Psychological Bulletin, 116: 348-357.
30. Jung, D.I., Chow, C. and Wu, A. (2003). The role of transformational leadership in enhancing organizational innovation: hypotheses and some preliminary findings, Leadership Quarterly, 14: 525-544.
31. Keller, R.T. and Holland, W.E. (1983). Communicators and innovators in research and development organizations, Academy of Management Journal, 26 (4): 742-749.
32. Kelliher, C. and Riley, M. (2003). Beyond Efficiency: Some By-products of Functional Flexibility, The Service Industries Journal, 23: 98-113.
33. Kelloway, E.K. (1998). Using LISREL for Structural Equation Modeling, Sage, Thousand Oaks.
34. Kenny, D.A., Kashy, D.A. and Bolger, N. (1998). Data Analysis in Social Psychology, in The Handbook of Social Psychology (Vol. 1, 4th Ed.), Eds. D. Gilbert, S. Fiske and G. Lindzey, Boston, MA: McGraw-Hill: 233-265.
35. Ketkar, S. and Sett, P.K. (2010). Environmental dynamism, human resource flexibility, and firm performance: analysis of a multi-level causal model, The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 21(8): 1173-1206.
36. Ketkar, S. and Sett, P.K. (2009). HR Flexibility and Firm Performance: Analysis of a Multi Level Causal Model, The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 20(5): 1009-1038.
37. Lee, SH.H. (2009). Developing Hierarchical Structure For Assessing the Impact of Innovation Factors on a Firm's Competitiveness – A Dynamic – Capabilities Approach Taiwan, The Journal of American Academy of Business, Cambridge, 15(1): 138-147.
38. Ling, Ya-Hui and Hong, Ling (2010). The Influence of Intellectual Capital on Organizational Performance: The Mediation Effect of Intellectual Capital Management Strategy, Human Resource Management Student Newspaper, Vol. 10, No. 1, pp. 1-27
39. Loehlin, J.C. (2004). Latent Variables Models: An Introduction to Factor, Path, and Structural Analysis (4th Ed.), NJ: Erlbaum, Mahwah.
40. Mackinnon, D.P. and Dwyer, J.H. (1993). Estimating Mediation Effects in Preventive Studies, Evaluation Review, 17(2): 144-158.
41. Mazzanti, M., Pini, P. and Tortia, E. (2006). Organizational innovations, human resources and firm performance The Emilia-Romagna food sector, The Journal of Socio-Economics, 35: 123-141.
42. Meyers, L.S., Gamst, G. and Guranio, A.J. (2006). Applied Multivariate Research: Design and Interpretation, CA: Sage, Thousand Oaks.
43. Molleman, E. and Slomp, J. (1999). Functional flexibility and team performance, International Journal of Production Research, 37(8): 1837-1858.
44. Mulaik, S.A., James, L.R., Van Alstine, J., Bennet, N., Lind, S. and Stilwell, C.D. (1989). Evaluation of Goodness-of-fit Indices for Structural Equation Models, Psychological Bulletin, 105: 430-445.
45. Mumford, M.D., Scott, G.M., Gaddis, B. and Strange, J.M. (2002). Leading creative people: orchestrating expertise and relationship, The Leadership Quartrrly, 13(6): 705-750.
46. Nadkarni, S. and Narayanan, V.K. (2007). Strategic Schemas, Strategic Flexibility, and Firm Performance: The Moderating Role of Industry Clockspeed, Strategic Management Journal, 28: 243-270.
47. Ngoa, H.Y. and Loi, R. (2008). Human resource flexibility, organizational culture and firm performance: an investigation of multinational firms in Hung Kong, The Journal of Human Resource Management, 19: 1654-1666.
48. OECD (1996). The measurement of scientific and technological activities: proposed guidelines and interpreting technological innovation data (Oslo Manual); http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/35/61/2367580.pdf.
49. OECD (2004). Small and medium-sized enterprises in Turkey: issues and policies, Paris: OECD.
50. Oldham GR, and Cummings, A. (1996). Employee creativity: personal and contextual factors at work, Academy of Management Journal, 39(3): 607-634.
51. Ruize-Santos, C. and Mercander, J. (2003). The use of contractual working time flexibility by Spanish SMEs, Personnel Review, 3: 164-186.
52. Sean, A. (2005). A Firm-level Analysis of HR Flexibility, Dissertation for degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
53. Shalley, C.E. and Gilson, L.L. (2004). What Leaders Need to Know: A Review of Social and Contextual Factors that Can Foster or Hinder Creativity, The Leadership Quarterly, 15: 36.
54. Sobel, M. (1982). Asymptotic Confidence Intervals for Indirect Effects in Structural Equation Models, Sociological Methodology, 13: 290-312.
55. Tierney, P. Farmer, S.M. and Graen, G.B. (1999). An examination of leadership and employee creativity: the relevance of traits and relationships, Personnel Psychology, 52: 591-620.
56. Valverda, M., Tregaskis, O. and Brewster, C. (2000). Labor Flexibility and Firm Performance, International Advances in Economic Research, 6(4): 649-661.
57. Verdu-Jover, A.J., Lloréns-Montes, F.J. and García-Morales, V.J. (2004). The concept of fit in services flexibility research: an empirical approach, Service Industry Management, 15(5): 499-514.
58. Wong, S.Y. and Chin, K.S. (2007). Organizational innovation management: An organization wide perspective, Industrial Management and Data Systems, 107(9): 1290-1315.
59. Woodman, R.W., Sawyer, J.E. and Griffin, R.W. (1993). Toward a theory of organizational creativity, Academy of Management Review, 18(2): 293-321.
60. Wright, P. and Snell, S. (1998). Toward a Unifying Framework for Exploring Fit and Flexibility in Strategic Human Resource Management, Academy of Management Review, 23:756-772.
61.   Zhou, J. and George, J.M. (2001). When job dissatisfaction leads to creativity: encouraging the expression of voice, Academy of Management Journal, 44(4): 682-96.